Introduction to IPv6
The world wide web is a network that interconnects millions of computers worldwide. Just for this communication to occur, each related device requires a unique street address, which distinguishes it via others. This is the function involving IP (Internet Protocol). The web that with each day, more and more computers are coupled to the internet (read computers, on the whole, i. e., PCs, computers, smartphones, tablets, and so on.. ), and because of that, the amount of IP addresses available is actually running low.
Therein gets into the scene IPv6 means Internet Protocol version six. In this article, you will learn a bit of the actual operation of this protocol as well as understand how it can solve the issue of internet addresses.
Internet Process (IP)
Before jumping into the actual IPv6 issue itself, you will need to know the IPv4, which many of us conventionally call only IP. IPv4 is composed of a string number in the following style: XXXX, where x can be a number that can go from 0 to 255, such as:
173. 194. 34. 88
For each computer connected to the World wide web has a unique IP address, a entity named IANA and ICANN distributes “quota” involving IP for all parts of the globe. These quotas are applied by regional entities which inturn, pass on to providers, generally known as ISP (Internet Service Provider).
When you hire a company to deliver Internet access to your home, for example , typically the provider will provide an Internet protocol address of its quota (in most cases, this address alterations each connection) to connect your laptop or computer to the internet or your network. Internet sites also have an IP address, after all, are usually stored on servers that might be obviously connected to the internet.
Typically the IPv4 format is a string of 32 bits (or four sets of 6 bits) and this allows in theory the creation of up to four, 294, 967, 296 tackles. A very large amount, isn’t this? But, believe it or not, soon it will likely be insufficient.
This problem exists since the internet was not planned in order to be as large. The initial idea was to create a conversation system that interconnects investigation centers. Only when the internet grew to be used in a broad sense it had been clear that the maximum amount of IP addresses could be accomplished in a relatively near future. It had been from this realization that the task IPng (Internet Protocol following generation) began, giving increase to what is known as IPv6.
Destruction of IP addresses
It is far from difficult to understand why there was good exhaustion of addresses throughout the IPv4 format. For starters, of the 4 billion combinations offered, such as those that start with 10 and 127, for instance, are reserved for local marketing networks or for testing. Additionally , there is a significant portion of contact information that are meant to institutions and huge corporations.
But the main facts are that the world is significantly connected. You can find access details provided by Wi-Fi networks throughout malls, restaurants, airports and in many cases bus. Not to mention that it is significantly common for the number of people that have a broadband connection at home as well as signing a plan 3G to get into the internet on mobile or even laptop from anywhere.
Helpful measures were taken to cope with this issue, such as the use of NAT (Network Address Translation), one way that allows a single IP address signifies multiple computers, this system is applied to, for example, ISPs radio or even by providers offering 3G access.
The issue is that NAT and other steps taken have their limitations with most only postpone the actual exhaustion so that a final as well as practical solution to be implemented. At this point, you already know that this answer goes by the name IPv6.
The creation involving IPv6 consumed several years, after the number of parameters and demands need to be observed that troubles do not occur or at least always be substantially mitigated in its setup. In other words, it was necessary to come up with a technology – IPv4 rapid evolving, and not create a new standard.
The first noticeable variation between IPv4 and IPv6 is its format: the initial consists of 32 bits, while already reported, whereas the second reason is comprised of 128 bits. Hence, theoretically, the number of available includes can reach 340, 282, 366, 920, 938, 463, 463, 374, 607, 431, 768, 211, 456 a great outrageously high number!
But we have a problem: if the IPv4 make use of four numerical sequences to make the address – as an example: 208. 67. 222. 230 – in IPv6 it could have to apply no less than of sixteen groups of numbers. Just imagine keying in it all!
Therefore , IPv6 makes use of eight sequences of up to several characters separated by ‘: ‘ (colon), but taking into consideration the hexadecimal system.
Types of IPv6 Addresses
In general, an IPv6 address is part of on the list of following categories: Unicast, Multicast and Anycast. This attribute primarily permits the optimal distribution of the address and enables these to be looked at more quickly, depending on the circumstances. Take a look at having a look at each type in small:
Unicast – It is a style that defines a single screen, such that packets addressed for its address are delivered to the item alone. It is suitable for peer-to-peer;
Multicast – This is the style, where data packets may be delivered to all addresses that will belong to a particular group;
Anycast – It is similar to multicast, but the only difference would be that the data packet is brought to the interface group that may be closest. This type is suitable for hosts and DNS.
It is well worth noting that, as with IPv4, IPv6 addresses can also be broken into their “quotas” or “categories”, so that hierarchies can be intended to determine the optimal distribution regarding addresses.
In IPv6, there was also a concern relating to security in IPv4. One of many mechanisms created for this: perhaps the most important – will be the IPSec (IP Security), which gives functionality for encryption of knowledge packets, to ensure these several aspects: integrity, confidentiality in addition to authenticity.
In fact, IPSec can double in IPv4, but not transmission based on NP. There is no need other in IPv6, therefore , using IPSec occurs without constraints.
To perform its function, IPSec uses an extension header fundamentally called the Authentication Header (AH) for authentication, otherwise named Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to provide confidentiality and Net Key Exchange (IKE) standard protocol for encryption.
It is well worth noting that the protocol IPv6 by itself is already a great development in safety since the quantity of includes is so large that, like it makes the use of scanning strategies impossible in IP sites to find possible computers together with security vulnerabilities.
Most importantly, still the fact that IPv6 offer a lot more protection than IPv4 does not always mean that reduce safety worries will not bring problems. The protection resources such as access handle system, firewall, antivirus as well as other resources should be continued to utilize.
As you may have noticed, the particular IPv6 protocol represents most of what will be the internet in the future, since it not only eliminates the current limitations in IPv4 but furthermore, it opens up a range of possibilities to really make the world more connected.